Tuesday, April 11, 2017
Category : NEWS, INGREDIENTS, INNOVATION, CLINICAL EVIDENCE | Author : experts | Comment : No Comments

NOL, Nutraveris Online, the most efficient data solution to create, keep up-to-date and launch your products in the 28 EU member states, used for 10years by more than 500 industry leaders informs you:


This review provides two examples for risk assessment for phytochemical ingredients which are used in certain supplements marketed for sportspeople: synephrine (extracted from fruits of Citrus aurantium) and hydroxycitric acid (HCA, isolated from fruits of Garcinia cambogia).





hydroxycitric acid

Hydroxycitric acid chemical structure

Synephrine chemical structure

Synephrine chemical structure



Animal and human studies as well as case reports provide evidence for cardiovascular effects due to ingestion of high synephrine doses, especially in combination with caffeine and physical exertion. A dose of up to 6.7 mg/day, synephrine is presumed to represent a safe intake from supplements.

In subchronic animal studies, administration of high doses of certain HCA-containing preparations led to testicular toxicity (testicular atrophy and impaired spermatogenesis), yielding a NOAEL of 389 mg HCA/kg bw/day. In view of lack of adequate human data on the safety of HCA-preparations, particularly with respect to the human male reproductive system, substantial uncertainties exist regarding the safety of supplements containing high amounts of HCA.



Bakhiya N, Ziegenhagen R, Hirsch-Ernst KI, Dusemund B, Richter K, Schultrich K, Pevny S, Schäfer B, Lampen A. Phytochemical compounds in sport nutrition: Synephrine and hydroxycitric acid (HCA) as examples for evaluation of possible health risks. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017 Mar 8.


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